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API 571 Damage Mechanisms

With a technical basis in API RP 571 and WRC 489, Damage for the web is an invaluable reference guide for identifying and understanding the potential damage mechanisms that can cause costly fixed equipment failure. Similar to the desktop version, the heart of Damage for the web is the Solver. By selecting filter criteria (process unit, material, operating temperature, source and morphology), the Solver will quickly identify the possible damage mechanisms from the complete list defined in API 571, highlighting the most likely mechanisms for the selected criteria. The list of damage mechanisms is hyperlinked to the section of the 571 document pertaining to that mechanism. The document is presented in accordion format for mobile-friendly viewing and includes image links for appearance or morphology of damage.

A comprehensive material look up reference tool for specifications, chemistry, hardness, fired heater limits, weld and pump materials is available. Process Flow Diagrams may be accessed from a pull down menu or from the Solver. Damage mechanisms shown on the PFDs are hyperlinked to the relevant 571 section. In addition to the calculators for sulfidation, H2S corrosion, and oxidation found in the desktop version, there are additional API 581-compatible susceptibility calculators for amine, sulfide stress, and caustic cracking.

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Charpy Data Analysis

Fit Charpy impact test data to the hyperbolic tangent function, a transition function that is commonly used to represent a Charpy transition curve: CVN=A+B∙tanh[(T-D)/C], see below.

The variation of Charpy V-notch Impact Energy (CVN) with temperature can be modeled using a transition function such as the typical hyperbolic tangent function. The transition curve has a lower shelf, a transition zone, and an upper shelf. The Fracture Appearance Transition Temperature (FATT) is defined as the temperature corresponding to 50% shear and may be approximated as point D in the image above. A fracture toughness may be determined using the 20 ft-lb (28 Joule) energy that can be calculated from the hyperbolic tangent function after fitting by using Wallin’s Fracture Toughness Master Curve (see WRC 562).

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Fluid Explorer

The fluid explorer app predicts the thermodynamic and transport properties of a multi-component fluid mixture based upon the properties of its distinct molecular components using a cubic equation of state method. A database of over 1,800 pure components is available to choose from when building the mixture. This database contains many temperature-dependent correlations for the thermodynamic, transport, toxic and flammable properties of each component.

The user can select from the following thermodynamic calculations once the fluid mixture is defined (the combined properties of the mixture at the final state are provided):

  • Isothermal flash to a specified pressure
  • Isenthalpic flash to a specified pressure
  • Isentropic flash to a specified pressure
  • Bubble point temperature for a given pressure
  • Bubble point pressure for a given temperature
  • Dew point temperature for a given pressure
  • Dew point pressure for a given temperature

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Fracture Toughness

Determine the fracture toughness of a carbon or low alloy steel based on the Wallin Fracture toughness Master Curve. The fracture toughness estimation is based on WRC 562 and includes the effects of temper embrittlement and hydrogen effects on the fracture toughness of low chrome alloys, i.e. 2.25Cr-1Mo.

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Lot Centered Analysis

Fit creep test data to the Omega creep model of API 579/ASME FFS-1, Part 10. The test data can be in the form of either rupture time, initial strain rate, or strain versus time. Users providing rupture or strain rate data can produce custom fits of the initial strain rate and Omega parameters as functions of temperature and stress in the Larson-Miller form. If the data comes from multiple material lots, the scatter between them is accounted for with lot-centered analysis and both the weighted-average statistics and uncertainty are returned. Alternatively, users providing strain-time data for tertiary creep under constant conditions may calculate the best-fit values of the parameters specific to the particular conditions and material provided.

Material Explorer

Access to E2G’s extensive material database for materials typically used in the construction of pressure vessels, piping and tankage is provided. The database includes:

  • Material physical properties – Young’s Modulus’s, thermal expansion coefficient, thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity as a function of temperature.
  • Strength parameters – yield and tensile strength as a function of temperature.
  • Allowable design stresses as a function of temperature, allowable stress may be determined based upon a specific year of the code shown below.
    • ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Sections I, Section VIII, Divisions 1 and 2
    • ASME B31 Piping Codes B31.1, B31.3, B31.4 and B31.8
    • API 620, API 650, API 653

The above properties are determined for a specified input temperature. Supplemental output including tables and graphs of material properties as a function of temperature is also provided.

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